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Parque Nacional Bahuaja Sonene

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El Parque Nacional Bahuaja Sonene (PNBS) está ubicado en las provincias de Tambopata,  Carabaya y Sandia, en los departamentos de Madre de Dios y Puno respectivamente. Su extensión es de 1’091,416 hectáreas. Su presencia busca conservar un mosaico de hábitats que alberga una gran diversidad de flora y fauna, representada por elementos tanto del sur como del norte amazónico. El PNBS protege elementos únicos en el Perú, como la sabana húmeda tropical (Pampas del Heath), hábitat de especies como el ciervo de los pantanos y el lobo de crin, y las formaciones del valle del Candamo.

En su interior se protege también los procesos culturales de la cultura Ese’eja, etnia originaria y ancestralmente vinculada a estos territorios. Asimismo, su establecimiento contribuye al desarrollo sostenible de las regiones Madre de Dios y Puno.

El PNBS se ubica en la ecorregión del bosque húmedo de la Amazonía suroccidental y presenta hábitats típicos de este bosque y del bosque húmedo premontano tropical. El área presenta lagos o cochas, pantanos de palmeras y zonas estacionalmente inundables. Entre los hábitats que destacan están las Pampas del Heath, las cuales motivaron la creación de un santuario en 1983 para su conservación.

Esta gran planicie cubierta de pastizales de hasta 2 m de altura tiene pequeñas aglomeraciones de palmeras que se convierten en islas cuando las pampas se inundan completamente entre diciembre y abril. Además su presencia determina el límite sur de los bosques tropicales del continente, que a partir de aquí se transforman en las vastas sabanas benianas.

El área ocupada por el PNBS es territorio ancestral de la etnia Ese’eja, perteneciente a la familia lingüística Tacana, quienes hoy se concentran en las áreas de propiedad comunal de Infierno, Palma Real y Sonene, colindantes al Parque. Una cuarta comunidad nativa vecina, Kotsimba, corresponde a la etnia Pukirieri, de la familia Harakmbut.

El PNBS es el eslabón que conecta las áreas naturales protegidas del Perú con las de Bolivia (colinda con el Parque Nacional Madidi), en el propuesto Corredor de Conservación Vilcabamba Amboró. Visitar este rincón del país le ofrece a cualquiera las razones para preservar nuestra diversidad biológica y cultural. Conocer este y otros lugares de nuestra amazonía nos hace ver como pequeños elementos dentro de todo un sistema tan complejo que siempre ha funcionado a la perfección y que nos deslumbra con su belleza.

 

Flora y Fauna

En el PNBS se ha reportado la presencia de más de 600 especies de aves —378 de ellas en el sector del río Heath— entre las que destacan 7 especies de guacamayos, la espátula rosada (Ajaia ajaja), el cóndor de la selva (Sarcoramphus papa) y el águila harpía (Harpya harpyja). A su vez, se estima que en su interior habitan más de 180 especies de mamíferos, entre los que destacan los perros de monte (Speothos venaticus), (Cerdocyon thous) y (Atelocynus microtis), la nutria gigante o lobo de río (Pteronura brasiliensis), el ciervo de los pantanos (Blastocerus dichotomus) y el singular lobo de crin (Chrysocyon brachyurus); estas dos últimas, especies emblemáticas de las pampas del Heath que no existen en ningún otro lugar del país.

Asimismo, se encuentra también especies como el oso hormiguero (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), el armadillo gigante (Priodontes maximus), el maquisapa negro (Ateles paniscus) y el jaguar (Panthera onca). Entre los reptiles y anfibios se ha determinado la presencia de más de 50 especies, donde sobresalen el caimán negro (Melanosuchus niger), la anaconda (Eunectes marinus) y la taricaya (Podocnemis unifilis); además se tiene 5 especies endémicas de ranas. También se ha reportado la presencia de 180 especies de peces y de 1,200 especies de mariposas.

El PNBS protege la única porción de sabana tropical húmeda que tiene el Perú, donde abundan palmeras como el aguaje (Mauritia flexuosa), formando islas sobre las docenas de especies de gramíneas que crecen en las llanuras inundables que son el refugio de fauna altamente especializada. En la zona de la cuenca del río Candamo se puede encontrar palmeras, caucho (Hevea guianensis) y tornillo (Cedrelinga cateniformis).

En la parte más elevada se encuentra bosques enanos compuestos de arbustos y árboles pequeños. La alta diversidad de comunidades vegetales en todos los sectores del PNBS incluye además a varias especies forestales de importancia económica como el cedro (Cedrela odorata), la caoba (Swietenia macrophylla), la castaña ( Bertholletia excelsa) y diversas palmeras como la pona (Iriartea deltoides), el huasaí (Euterpe sp.) y el ungurahui (Oenocarpus bataua).

Actividades de Interés

En el río Tambopata se puede realizar turismo de aventura (rafting y otras actividades) entre junio y setiembre. A lo largo del río se puede acampar en sus playas desde donde se aprecia la variedad de flora y fauna presente. También se puede visitar la collpa Heath, a 7 horas de Puerto Maldonado navegando por el río Madre de Dios y el Heath. Allí se aprecia una gran variedad de guacamayos multicolores, loros, pericos, ronsocos entre otros animales.

Clima y Tiempo

El PNBS está situado en un lugar donde confluye el clima húmedo tropical y el subtropical amazónico. La zona recibe precipitaciones anuales equivalentes a 2,400 mm. La temperatura promedio es de 30° C, pero puede alcanzar en el verano hasta 38° C o bajar hasta los 8° C.

Los ‘friajes’, vientos antárticos ocasionales que ingresan al área, producen las bajas temperaturas entre junio y julio. Con las lluvias de diciembre a marzo, las pampas se cubren de agua formando un enorme pantano.

 

 

 

 

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